Generated 200khz square wave with 50% duty cycle on atmega32.
Code is written in assemble language.
// Created: 9/7/2018 8:24:31 AM
// Author : abhay
BEGIN: RCALL DELAY
// OUT OCR0,128
In this fft, it can be clearly seen that the 200khz pulse is represented by a high but we can also see the harmonic of the pulse.
This development is very basic. It provides the GPIO in the form of header. As i will be using this board for rapid development and learning different coding practices.
I designed this board in KiCad – a open source l tool. From schematics and PCB layout is designed in this software suite.
Here are the schematics and PCB layout.
As i don’t have a laser printer i used the free hand sketching of traces. It is a very long and tedious process. After tracing with permanent marker and letting it dry it for few minutes. I etched this PCB in ferric chloride solution. I use very diluted solution, few grams of ferric chloride in around 200 ml water.
Total Etching time is around 40 minutes, After the board has been etched it needs to be cleaned thoroughly. I used utensil cleaning powder for that. And rinsed the board under water. And then let it air dry for few minutes.
The development is created. But there are few issues that came while testing the board. When i tested the board the chip does not responds. While checking for shorts or no connection on the PCB. I found that capacitor is not blocking the alternating signal. rather it is showing a short. So i had to change the 22pf capacitor with a new one and the board now works perfectly fine.
Scan the LDR reading with the help of atmega32 adc pins. Send the captured data to a computer using ftdi, bluetooth ,wifi or zigbee. Run any free math processing tool and make a image. Increasing the Number of ldr increases the resolution of the image.
This two axis stepper motor control system uses attiny2313 microcontroller. And it utilities the l298 dual h bridge power ic in multiwatt 15 package. The code is easy to write. Dual power supply for the microcontroller and l298 allows for increased isolation. The circuit must use a transformer for the proper galvanic isolation. This is a crude circuit as it needs some filter capacitors to reduce the voltage and current spikes.
Why limit yourself to the realm of arduino’s here is a new open-source electronic prototyping platform for the tinkers out there. It uses every thing open source. It is so open source you make your own. excpet for the chips.
Designed exclusively for the atmega16 and atmega32.
Atmel Atmega micro controller if set correctly will work fine. But when you tinker with its setting. Things get out of control. One such problem is when you set the wrong fuse setting of the device to use the external crystal oscillator.
Connect the microcontroller with the USBASP programmer
Open the command prompt Win+r
write the command avrdude -c usbasp -p m32 -t
This will open a terminal where you will write read lfuse
Note down the settings
Then write read hfuse
Calculate the correct fuse setting and then write avrdude -c usbasp -p m32 -U lfuse:w:0xe1:m -U hfuse:w:0x99:m
These setting specified in the above post is incorrect. Calculate the fuse setting in advance Also remember the JTAG pin will also be set correctly Never Change SPI setting without reading document. Changing this setting will result in non-functioning of SPI and the programming can only be done with manufacturer programmer.
The above said procedure is verfied on the follwing micrcontrollers:
This circuit uses very basic components. The use of mm74c922 integrated circuit makes it different from other. This hardware based scanning makes the code really simple.
The use of Atmega16 can be avoided but this allows for complex coding structure to be stored. Due to cost associated with the micro controller.
External crystals are avoided as the device will be used for low frequency of up to 100 Hz. Which can be used easily be handled by the internal clock. The deviation of clock timing should be taken into account when programming.
The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature devices with an output voltage linearly-proportional to the Centigrade temperature